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Dr. Tsubokura's Radiation Lecture Vol.40

Author: Masaharu Tsubokura Editors: Akihiko Ozaki M.D., Yuki Senoo 79. The other cells effectively replace the damaged or lost function of the body The previous articles explained deterministic effects: a significantly high level of radiation exposure definitely causes sets of symptoms such as hair loss, bleeding, diarrhea, and burns (erythema), while a sufficiently low level of exposure will never result in such adverse health effects. This “deterministic effect” is caused by radiation exposure-induced cell death. Furthermore, our bodies are made up of approximately 60 trillion cells, and a certain low percentage of human cells are renewed and effectively replaced every day. Even if we assu

MRIC Global Essay Contest: Health care delivery system in Nepal. Where we stand in South Asia, a com

Author: Anup uprety, MD My name is Anup uprety. I am an anaesthesiology resident working in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital in Nepal. As a medical doctor, I am describing the current situation and challenges of our health system in South Asia. Nepal is a low and middle income country sandwiched between two largest growing economy India and china. With a population of 28 millions, life expectancy of 69 years and per capita GNP of USD 620, it is trying to tread its path towards the prosperity. The health system that was introduced in 1956 as a general health plan has now been expanded mainly focusing on primary health care. A robust health network system with sub health post as a basic

Dr. Tsubokura's Radiation Lecture Vol.39

Author: Masaharu Tsubokura Editors: Akihiko Ozaki M.D., Yuki Senoo 77. Much higher radiation exposure could result in health effects for the affected population The previous article’s author explained that a significantly high level of radiation exposure definitely causes various symptoms, such as hair loss, bleeding, diarrhea, and burns (erythema). These phenomena are called “deterministic effects.” On the other hand, the author stated that a sufficiently low level of exposure will never result in such adverse health effects. Then what is the threshold radiation dose that the body can be exposed to without such adverse health effects? The answer is several hundred millisieverts. This level

Dr. Tsubokura's Radiation Lecture Vol.38

Author: Masaharu Tsubokura Editors: Akihiko Ozaki M.D., Yuki Senoo 75. Absence of internal contamination among residents in Fukushima As of 2016, whole-body counter screening, which is done to evaluate the level of internal radiation exposure, found no internal contamination with radioactive cesium among the local residents in Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture, which is the coastal area to the north of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. In fact, internal contamination was absent in more than 99% of the residents who participated in the screening, irrespective of the nature of the participants (e.g., adults and children). Currently, it is hard to find a local resident with interna

Dr. Tsubokura's Radiation Lecture Vol.37

Author: Masaharu Tsubokura Editors: Akihiko Ozaki M.D., Yuki Senoo 73. Radiation is emitted to stabilize the nucleus Radioactive uranium, potassium, and cesium transform themselves into stable substances by emitting a predetermined amount of radiation (alpha-, beta-, and gamma rays). However, they do not emit radiation endlessly. In fact, radiation emission will eventually stop, and radioactive substances will no longer emit radiation once their nuclei are stabilized. For example, when there are 100 molecules of a radioactive substance, they will all emit radiation to stabilize themselves. Some will emit radiation immediately, while others will take a while to begin emitting radiation. The t

MRIC Global Essay Contest: A Glimpse of The Cost Aspect of Universal Health Coverage and the Philipp

Author: Arra Shayne B. Saquido, RN, MOH Imagine a family member needs to go to the hospital. Neither you nor any of your family members have money on hand to pay for hospital bills; should you bring them to the emergency room? How about when your prescribed medication costs two third of your daily pay? Although a strengthened anti-deposit bill for hospital pre-treatment and continuous campaigning for the usage of generic medicine are in place, paying for hospital bills or maintenance medicine is a daily struggle for an average Filipino. This becomes a daily obstacle in obtaining health care. In the Philippines, the following resources assist in paying health care expenditures: (1) national a

Dr. Tsubokura's Radiation Lecture Vol.36

Author: Masaharu Tsubokura Editors: Akihiko Ozaki M.D., Yuki Senoo 71. Alpha ray has low penetrating power Unstable radioactive substances discharge unnecessary protons, neutrons, electrons, and energy as radiation to stabilize themselves. Radon and radium discharge a set of 2 protons and 2 neutrons called “alpha rays.” Cesium and potassium emit either 1 electron or a unit of energy, which are called a “beta ray” and a “gamma ray,” respectively. An alpha ray consists of 4 particles, whereas a beta ray consists of only 1 electron. This makes alpha particles heavier and larger than beta particles. Because of this feature, alpha particles travel for only a few centimeters in the air, and they c

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