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Dr. Tsubokura's Radiation Lecture Vol.27

Author: Masaharu Tsubokura Editors: Akihiko Ozaki M.D., Yuki Senoo 53. Shipping restriction limits internal radiation exposure The health effects of radiation exposure, namely increased risk of cancer, are related to the level of exposure. As such, the risk of thyroid cancer depends on the extent of a person’s exposure to radioactive iodine. Reportedly, the biggest contamination pathway induced by radioactive iodine after the Chernobyl accident was as follows: cows in the affected area ate grass contaminated by radioactive iodine, which became condensed in the milk the cows produced. People continued to drink this milk not knowing that it was contaminated. In contrast, in the case of Fukushi

Dr. Tsubokura's Radiation Lecture Vol.26

Author: Masaharu Tsubokura Editors: Akihiko Ozaki M.D., Yuki Senoo 51. Screening program is effective for limited types of cancer In reality, cancer screenings have several downsides: some tests may have limited accuracy in cancer detection, detect non-life-threatening cancer, or cause complications from various interventions. Considering these negative consequences of the cancer screenings, it is recommended when early diagnosis and treatment is assumed to decrease mortality related to cancer. In other words, only limited types of cancer would benefit from population-level cancer screening programs. Today, cancer screening programs with widely-accepted efficacy are those for colorectal canc

MRIC Global Essay Contest: My medical exchange experience in Czech Republic

Author:Oumayma Lahjouji 5th year medical student at Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Fez in Moroccothe Institute of Medical Faculty, Comenius University My name is Oumayma Lahjouji, and I am a 5th year medical student at the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Fez in Morocco. Since my first year in the Faculty, I have been a member of the “FeMSA” Fes medical student association, and I gained experience working in this association as its president in 2017/2018. Thanks to this great association, I had the chance to meet many foreign medical students who came for an internship at my hometown’s university hospital. When I met them, I always asked each one the same question: “How is the medica

Dr. Tsubokura's Radiation Lecture Vol.25

Author: Masaharu Tsubokura Editors: Akihiko Ozaki M.D., Yuki Senoo 49. Ultrasound examination is used to diagnose tumors There are two types of thyroid-related diseases, ones that change hormonal balances and ones that develop a “tumor.” In general, palpitations or an ultrasonography examination are the choices for the primary diagnosis method. A sac-like structure containing liquid, called a “cyst,” is often found during ultrasound examinations. The cyst appears as a black spot on the thyroid glands in the ultrasound. If we count tiny cysts as well, these cysts can be found in more than 1 in 2-3 children. Cysts are not “precancerous,” which denotes the potential to become cancer if they are

Dr. Tsubokura's Radiation Lecture Vol.24

Author: Masaharu Tsubokura Editors: Akihiko Ozaki M.D., Yuki Senoo 47. Sufficient amount of iodine from seafood Thyroid glands produce thyroid hormones by using iodine, whose function is to strengthen metabolisms. Seafood—such as kelp, seaweed, and codfish—is a rich source of iodine. The fact that Japanese people consume much seafood in their everyday diets is well-known. Therefore, it has been suggested that Japanese people rarely develop iodine deficiencies, even if they do not have a special intention of maintaining their iodine levels. After the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, an irregular type of iodine spread into the environment. This iodine, which is called radioactive iodin

MRIC Global Essay Contest: Is difficult mathematics necessary for the medical school entrance examin

Author:Chie Kizawa 2nd-year student at the Institute of Medical Faculty, Comenius University Mathematics was the subject I most hated in high school. I suppose the number of students who feel like I did is not low. However, mathematics was undoubtedly the key subject for high school students to make their next step. In fact, at age 18, during the final year of high school, we had to choose our university major and decide what to study in the future. It is very natural for many students at this age to be unable to decide on their future based on their interests. Yet, another factor makes their decision making harder. In Japan, when high school students are choosing their major, they also have

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