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Dr. Tsubokura's Radiation Lecture Vol.18

Author: Masaharu Tsubokura Editors: Akihiko Ozaki M.D., Yuki Senoo 35. The reference value is not the line that differentiates between safe and dangerous radiation levels A variety of “reference values” are used under the radiation protection guidelines in Japan, including annual radiation levels of 1 millisievert and 20 millisieverts and 100 becquerels per 1 kilogram of specific food. As you encounter various values in different radiation units in your daily life, you may find it difficult to understand how a safe level of radiation is expressed in each unit. Although they are often misunderstood, these reference values are not the borderlines that differentiate between “safe” and “dangerou

MRIC Global Essay Contest 2nd Prize Winning Essay: Gaps and disparities in healthcare between past c

Author: Karim Moutchou Introduction The majority of current healthcare systems were implemented during the 20th century, at the same time that colonizing countries were in charge of colonies in Africa, Asia, and South America. This situation made healthcare systems in the colonies not only defective but also dependent on and in service of the colonizers. In this article, we compare Morocco’s healthcare situation with the situation in France. Historical context Since 800 AD, Morocco’s successive empires took great interest in science. The country was one of the main scientific poles of the Arabic enlightenment period. For decades Morocco rose as one of the leaders in various scientific fields

Dr. Tsubokura's Radiation Lecture Vol.17

Author: Masaharu Tsubokura Editors: Akihiko Ozaki M.D., Yuki Senoo 33. Radiation exposure in Eastern Japan is little different from that in Western Japan It has been almost four and a half years since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident (the publication date of the original article was August 23, 2015). The air radiation dose rate has been gradually decreasing year by year; the air radiation dose rate in Soma City in 2015 fell by 70% compared to that of June 2011. However, the air dose rate will never reach zero due to the naturally occurring radiation emitted from radioactive agents in the universe or rocks and concrete in our living environment. The level of naturally occurring radiatio


Author: Hans Jesper F. Del Mundo The gross inequality in people’s health status, particularly between developed and developing countries as well as within them, is politically, socially and economically unacceptable (Alma Ata Declaration, 1978). However, this is still a common concern in many countries, especially in my country, the Philippines. The Philippine Health Agenda under the Duterte administration currently aspires to create a health system providing financial protection and better health outcomes and responsiveness. In line with financial protection, Filipinos—especially the poor, marginalized and vulnerable—should be protected from high health care costs, but this is still far fro

Dr. Tsubokura's Radiation Lecture Vol.16

Author: Masaharu Tsubokura Editors: Akihiko Ozaki M.D., Yuki Senoo 31. The exposure dose determines the impact on the body External exposure occurs when your body is exposed to radiation from an external source, and internal exposure occurs when you are exposed to radiation from radioactive substances that you have taken into your body. The total amount of this external and internal exposure determines its health effects on your body.Although internal radiation exposure is often assumed to be much more dangerous than external exposure is, the influence of radiation exposure is determined not by the type of exposure but by its total dose. To compare the influence of "internal" and "external"

MRIC & MRIC Global Essay Contest Results

We would like to express our gratitude for this fantastic opportunity to present our recent activities and describe the great success of the MRIC Global (Medical Research Information Centre)Essay Contest. The theme of this contest was “International Comparison of Healthcare Systems,” and the participants—medical practitioners and students from all over the world—shared their passionate perspectives on the topic. We received 13 entries from 8 countries, the MRIC Global editorial team (Akihiko Ozaki, M.D.; Asaka Higuchi, R.N.; and Yuki Senoo) selected the 5 best essays after careful deliberation. Andy Crump—a research biologist who has been reporting on all aspects of global health for over 30

Dr. Tsubokura's Radiation Lecture Vol.15

Author: Masaharu Tsubokura Editors: Akihiko Ozaki M.D., Yuki Senoo 29. Should we avoid radiation inspection? Hospitals utilize a variety of imaging examinations, such as X-rays, CTs, MRIs, and ultrasounds, for diagnosis and treatment purposes. X-rays and CT scanning sensitize the film with radiation whereas MRI creates images by using magnetic force produced in a tunnel made of strong magnets. As the name implies, in an ultrasound examination, ultrasounds are allied to organs, and the reflected waves are visualized. Principally, your body will not be exposed to ionizing radiation in MRIs and ultrasound examinations. Therefore, you may think MRIs and ultrasound examinations are better examina

Dr. Tsubokura's Radiation Lecture Vol.14

Author: Masaharu Tsubokura Editors: Akihiko Ozaki M.D., Yuki Senoo 27. Radioactive substances have been present in our environment for a long time Other than those spread by the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident, radioactive substances have been present in our environment for a long time. Cesium 134, cesium 137, and iodine 131 are artificial radioactive substances. Some would wonder whether their health effects differ, but they do not.The nature of ionizing radiation emitted from radioactive substances is all the same between natural and artificial radioactive materials; artificial radioactive substances do not emit a special kind of ionizing radiation. Even before the nuclear accident, we hav

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